I'm looking for the best examples of villains in cinema/books/art, as well as any resources you are aware of for crafting villains for original stories.
I'm also including antagonists, which need not be actual characters.
For instance, in the movie Toy Story, the first antagonist we become aware of is that Andy is moving and there's the possibility that a toy can be left behind in the process.
My reason for this post is that I've begun noticing that far less effort seems to be put into teaching people how to create the villain/antagonist in stories, even though the usual advice is to make them as hard/difficult/etc. for the protagonist/hero as possible. Well, how?
The world has some truly great literature on Heros, but I haven't (yet) found a similar level of sophistication on villains/antagonists beyond the usual platitudes.
I'm hoping to compile what I find, organize, and if the need exists, share it with the world.